Pseudo-Philo: Rewriting the Bible Frederick J. Murphy This is a literary and theological study of the Biblical Antiquities of Pseudo-Philo--a long, well-written reinterpretation of the Hebrew Bible written by a Palestinian Jew of the first century C.E. Also, send me the Evangelical Newsletter. 126-27), who demiurges through the Logos (Sacr. Leg. Notwithstanding, whereby one actually re… This is the love which is found between close friends. He was often called Philo of Alexandria, but he was also known as Philo Judaeus because of his Jewish background. The two latter Greek terms for love are not mentioned in the Bible, although we do see them expressed in certain stories. Many critics of Philo assumed his allegorical perspective, would lend credibility to the notion of legend over historicity. 8), while incorporeal powers called Forms help things take shape much like Plato’s young gods (Spec. ... Strong's Number G5384 matches the Greek φίλος (philos), which occurs 29 times in 27 verses in the Greek concordance of the KJV. “Philo bases his hermeneutics on the assumption of a twofold meaning in the Bible, the literal and the allegorical [enigmatical]. Philo regards the Bible as the source not only of religious revelation, but also of philosophic truth; for, according to him, the Greek philosophers also have borrowed from the Bible: Heraclitus, according to "Quis Rerum Divinarum Heres Sit," § 43 [i. 108-9). TERMS OF USE . In the Bible, storge is the Greek word for family love, like the affection among mother, fathers, sisters and brothers. First, Philo is the most obvious proponent of a platonized Judaism in first-century Judaism. [25(agapáō) focuses on value-driven(an decision-based) love – which of course does not … The Greek word philophron, which translates directly to the English “courtesy,” is used only once in the Bible. Simon Peter, Thomas (called the Twin), Nathanael of Cana in Galilee, the sons of Zebedee, and two others of his disciples were together. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Christians and Conspiracy Theories – An ...", My Deep Disappointment with Franklin Graham, John Swinton on Spirituality and Mental Challenges. Answer: Philo of Alexandria, sometimes known as Philo Judaeus, was a first-century philosopher who was born sometime between 15–30 BC in Alexandria, Egypt. 50 C.E.) Eros love in the Bible .  |  The two interpretations, however, are not of equal importance: the literal sense is adapted to human needs; but the allegorical [enigmatical] sense is the real one, which only the initiated comprehend. (c. 20-10 B.C.E.–c. Simon Peter said to them, “I am going fishing.” They said to him, “We will go with you.” They went out and … Philos is love. 133-43, 156; Cher. . Answer: The Bible speaks of two types of love: phileo and agape. Eros is the physical, sensual love between a husband and wife but can happen between the unmarried. ... James (in 4:4) says that whoever would be a friend (philos) of the world makes himself an enemy of God. A Jewish writer and philosopher who lived in Alexandria, Egypt. Philo characterizes as a monstrous impiety the anthropomorphism of the Bible, which ascribes to God hands and feet, eyes and ears, tongue and windpipe. Yet, we see features in Philo that do, perhaps, pave the way for Gnostic cosmology, theology, and demiurgism in his account of the Logos. 126-27), who demiurges through the Logos (Sacr. 31, 61; Her. He was often called Philo of Alexandria, but he was also known as Philo Judaeus because of his Jewish background. It is impossible to give precise dates for Philo’s birth. A member of the Jewish Diaspora, he was raised with a Jewish and Greek education, giving him an impressive status in a non-Jewish city like Alexandria. 1.329). These terms are phileo, agape, storge, and eros. Barrett   (Gospel According to St. John, 155) was partly right when he said that Philo “must be reckoned among the witness to an early form of gnosis, which developed into gnosticism as primitive Christianity was added to the syncretism of Hellenism with Judaism and other oriental movements.”, Please also opt me in for Exclusive Offers from Patheos’s Partners, Pastoral Epistles Commentary by Chris Hutson, "Well if Augustus was only a god insofar as social conventions accepted him as one ...", "On another blog I came across an excellent quote from CS Lewis, taken (I believe) ...", "Greetings from Tennessee. Thus, Philo read the stories and rules of the Bible as allegories that really taught — surprise! Both are Greek terms and appear at different points throughout Scripture. Therefore, the tendency of the King James translators to ignore this distinction and to translate these two very different words both as love is an absolute proof of the failure of the King James Bible in translation. Philo believed that Judaism was the only true religion, and he sought to lead Gentiles to God by making Judaism acceptable to them. Nice post, Mike. Get updates from Euangelion delivered straight to your inbox. What does the Bible say? The second word for "love" we need to examine is phileo, which means "to have a special interest in someone or something, frequently with focus on close association; have affection for, like, consider someone a friend." According to the Bible, we get to see 4 types of love, These are Phileo, Eros, Storge, and Agape and it is used for serval ways of love. Blue Letter Bible offers several daily devotional readings in order to help you refocus on Christ and the Gospel of His peace and righteousness. In Philo's words, the literal meaning is the body of the Bible, but the allegorical one is its soul; both must be kept in due consideration (On the Migration of Abraham 16.92-3). 133-43, 156; Cher. Consisting of a retelling of the Hebrew Bible from Genesis to the end of 1 Samuel, Biblical Antiquities embellishes and often departs from the narrative as we know it today in small and large details. Separate from Philo, possibly following Ex3:14 'ho on', possible following Greek philosophers' (Melissus of Samos etc.) 1 Samuel 18:1 says that their souls were “knit together”. 2.99-100) which mirrors the dyads and generation of aeons within the Gnostic pleroma. The definitions, origins, and features of Gnosticism are deeply contested. 3rd 4th 5th C. Philo, likewise, was plainly embarrassed by some of what he found in scripture. In Alexandria, the refined intellectual and teacher Clement met his master Pantaenus, who introduced him to Christianity as the highest form of philosophy. The Greek language has terms for four kinds of love. To better understand phileo love, it must be defined as one part of these four terms. All 3.207). 72-76; Fug. Patheos has the views of the prevalent religions and spiritualities of the world. It is often used or translated as affection or friendship. At the same time, he claimed that God “has no distinctive qualities” and that God “is incomprehensible,” so calling him by a personal name is impossible. The same holds good also as regards God's anthropopathicattributes. Church and ministry leadership resources to better equip, train and provide ideas for today's church and ministry leaders, like you. The Romans, withtheir universal ambitions, had replaced … PRIVACY POLICY, https://assetsnffrgf-a.akamaihd.net/assets/a/nwtstg/univ/wpub/nwtstg_univ_lg.jpg, Publication download options However, he mixed Scripture with Greek philosophy, such as that of Plato. The Greek language also had terms for two other types of love, eros and storge, which do not expressly appear in the Bible. Scripture, he says, adapts itself to human conceptions; and for pedagogic reasons God is occasionally represented as a man. Philo depicts God as the supreme demiurge (Opif. In the story from John 11, Jesus hears that his friend Lazarus is seriously ill. Two days later, Jesus brings His disciples to visit Lazarus's home in the village of Bethany. 2.49; Pot. 5384phílos– a friend; someone dearlyloved (prized) in a personal, intimate way; a trusted confidant, held dear in a close bond of personal affection. A Jewish writer and philosopher who lived in Alexandria, Egypt. (c. 20-10 B.C.E.–c. Philo is reworking biblical traditions in light of platonic cosmology as the Gnostics did later. An example of this is in Romans 12:10 in the word, philostorgos, which is a compound word made up of philos (the noun form of phileo) and storge. Philia (pronounced FILL-ee-uh) conveys a strong feeling of attraction, with its antonym or opposite being phobia. 503]; Zeno, according to "Quod Omnis Probus Liber," § 8 [ii. Colossians 2:7-8 Let your roots grow down into him, and let your lives be built on him. 6) even while their creative work was never entirely independent of divine direction (Spec. Stoic Influence. In one sense, however, it is clearly rooted in Platonic philosophy, especially in Plato’s separation of God from the demiurge, with the demiurge creating the world in co-operation with the young gods and leaving the maintenance of the world to the world-soul. 50 C.E.) Theconsensus is that he lived between the end of the first century BCEand the middle of the first century CE, during a period of acuteagitation and interethnic tensions in Alexandria. 12, where Moses, torn by his emotions… 109; Mut. 70; Conf. Outdo one another in showing honor” as “philadelphia” for which the “city of brotherly love” in Pennsylvania is called. of the Heb., but the second word is a technical term in Stoicism. View results using the NASB Greek concordance. Third, Philo begins to distance God from the creation of humanity because of the corruption of humanity, we see that when Philo says that although God made heaven, nonetheless, he needed the assistance of inferior subordinates to create something as inferior as humans (Opif. 175; Abr. The word phileo is expressly used in the Bible and refers to the warmth and affinity shared by close friends, almost as if those friends were actual siblings. It was not my intention to take two whole days off of... Why is our society so dysfunctional? Don’t let anyone capture you with empty philosophies and high-sounding nonsense that come from human thinking and from the spiritual powers of this … It would probably be helpful if phileo were never translated "love" in the New Testament, because it refers to a strong liking or a strong friendship. Philo was Greek-speaking, as were many Jews living in Egypt at that time. His use of certain Greek terms that are also found in the Christian Greek Scriptures may shed light on their meaning and can therefore be of interest to Bible students.—See study note on Mt 19:28. “a willing spirit” (RSV), or a “free spirit” (KJV), is in the LXX (v. 14) πνεύματι ἡγεμονικῷ, “guiding spirit.” The LXX is a good tr. Philo depicts God as the supreme demiurge (Opif. So C.K. He used the Greek Septuagint version of the Hebrew Scriptures as the basis for his Biblical studies. 1.13-20). Phileo word is a Greek word, that word means love among the brothers or you can say, brotherly love. For example, philia describes the benevolent, kindly love practiced by early Quakers. All. Would you like to read this article in %%? The Quakers described this love (philia) as a kind, benevolent love that they themselves practiced. 137), specifically, the mother of the Logos (Fug. 454]. Philo was Greek-speaking, as were many Jews living in Egypt at that time. To better understand phileo love, we need to take a brief look at the other types of love. Explore the world's faith through different perspectives on religion and spirituality! Leg. Note: The root (phil-) conveys experiential, personalaffection – indicating 5384(phílos) expresses experience-basedlove. — the philosophy of Plato and Aristotle. 53; Fug. Of course, we see how phileo gets translated "love," because in modern culture we say we "love" things that we stro… Philo’s writings were among the influences that led many nominal Christians to adopt the unscriptural doctrine of the immortality of the soul. To the point that some call Philo the “Cro-Magnon Man of Gnosticism” by his linking together biblical exegesis with platonic demiurgism. “For God so loved the world, that he gave his only Son, that … 54, 115-17; Ebr. 10; Her. The word phileo is used several times throughout the New Testament. Copyright © 2021 Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania. Among the things he particularly disliked, being a devout disciple of Plato, was the notion that God might have a physical body. However, most scholars agree that it was not written by Philo, and it is hence sometimes called 'Pseuophilo'. Although this Greek term does not appear in the Bible, Eros, or erotic love, is portrayed in the Old Testament book, … A … Philo's deployment of allegory to harmonize Jewish scripture, mainly the Torah, with Greek philosophy was the first documented of its kind, and thereby often misunderstood. Moreover, Philo’s teaching on the Logos (or, the Word) contributed to the development of the non-Biblical teaching of the Trinity. Glossary, Philo of Alexandria—Mixing Scripture With Speculation. Then your faith will grow strong in the truth you were taught, and you will overflow with thankfulness. Philo defended the existence of God. Second, it is interesting that Philo posits dual powers within the Logos (“God” and “Lord”) and various inferior powers begotten by the Logos (QE 2.62, 68; Fuga 95, 103; Mos. The first example of powerful friend love that came to my mind for this section was that of David and Johnathan. descriptions of 'being', possibly both, there's various Patristic references to 'ho on' (the he who is) 'peri tou ontos' (concerning he that is) in early Christianity. One example comes during the surprising event of Jesus raising Lazarus from the dead. Philo of Alexandria, also called Philo Judaeus, was a Hellenistic Jewish philosopher who lived in Alexandria, in the Roman province of Egypt. John 3:16 ESV / 10 helpful votes. Fourth, on the “knowledge” side of things, Philo’s Logos resembles a Gnostic demiurge when he declares that the Logos “is called a god by those of us with imperfect knowledge, while the wise and perfect know the first God” (Leg. 143; Legat. God as such is untouched by unreasonable emotions, as appears, e.g., from Exodus ii. Thayer’s Greek Lexicon transliterates the word love in Romans 12:10 “Love one another with brotherly affection. The idea is that the distinction between the two words for love in Greek is always consistent and clearly distinctive. 1. In Psalm 51:12, for example, the Eng. Fourth, Philo anticipates the Sophia mother by his emphasis on God as the Father of the universe and Wisdom as its Mother (Leg. I think you've ...". I interact with your post here. Also, send me the Evangelical Newsletter and special offers. 10; Her. This is different from the “agapē” mentioned in Romans chapter 12 an… It is the most general form of love in the Bible, encompassing love for fellow humans, care, respect, and compassion for people in need. I've written before about the tragedy of allowing screens into our sanctuaries,... To be honest, my Connect page is an experiment. The thing is that Plato’s demiurge is good, not wicked or ignorant as per Gnostic schemes. Yes, I want the Patheos Evangelical Newsletter as well, Identity Politics vs. Transactional Politics.